Intimate partner violence and depression (Literature review)
Being from schools with limited resources is worth experience to share. I used to visit HIV center regularly and it helped me to get the real in-depth idea of mental health aspect of HIV patients. I appreciated epidemiological facet of longitudinal, retrospective, prospective, case control/ cohort, cross sectionals studies and then interacted with researchers. Presentations by brains such as– Dr.Robert Ramien, Dr.Gulick, Dr.Robert Klitzman, Dr.Robin Rubien, Dr.TsiTsi and Kate (many more) added pages after pages to my knowledge. But to the heart, I was always eying on real hands-on experience. I always thought to grab some study to learn from any of researcher, and had desire to work with. Since Lehman College was with lack of resources, I tried to compensate it by attending lectures at NYU, Boston and Columbia University. Now coming back to Lehman, since I (we) already had bad experience with instructor (confused, had poor verbal(oral) communication skills * example:pronouncing many words wrong such as multi as moolti*; and ra**** I felt it*) who taught research method course, I had concerns, I was also worried to pursue capstone course with her; I conveyed my concerns to Professor Levitt and Professor Tsui (internship instructor) many times. Anyway long story short, I desperately wanted to develop research skills. Lehman College was with limited resources and confused choices like former chair of health science department ; I was super-excited to learn when we had new faculty. Professor Levitt denied me opportunities. On the other hand, unfortunately, we had same instructor for capstone course who took our research method. Few of our seniors described instructor as hard and soft as they did for research method course (on the first day of both courses) .
Truly speaking, we were not interested in hardness and softness; we were students to learn. I wanted to develop good paper out of my internship at Einstein (thanks to my wonderful supervisor and mentor Dr. Moadel). On the basis of weird experience we had with chair as she was confusing, and then many things unfolded, which ultimately pushed me into ****** ****** *******. I ended up spending almost 9 thousand dollars on my capstone; unfortunately, instructor (confused and culturally incompetent) was the wall between my public health passion and me. One of senior alumni (presently work with Department of health who termed chair as his best professor) made me aware of Chair’s power, resources and contacts. While working at Einstein, I could not get over thought of Chair and her power. It continued for long, my passion for public health was insulted. I am dedicating this article to my best Professor (faculty at Lehman College) to let her know that I was ************* at Lehman College. I urged director Professor Levitt to let me learn any of pieces of IPV study , or any of studies related to Qualitative research, she denied me every opportunity. My public health passion was destroyed by both powerful chair and director.Professor Levitt was nice person overall, however, I wish she would have relieved former chair(then chair) from instructing capstone course and research method course. Wasn’t it waste of time, money and limited resources?
Intimate partner violence is global public health problem. Prevalence of Intimate partner violence differs geographically and financially. In countries like Peru, Ethiopia and Bangladesh, it was reported to be of 60%, while in Japan, it was 15 percent (Garcia-Moreno et al., 2006). In financial context, it is high in low- middle-income countries (Kabir, Nasreen, & Edhborg, 2014). A review by Tesera Bitew also found intimate partner violence associated with depression (Bitew, 2014). Rural communities were found to have more prevalence than urban communities. (Erulkar, 2013) . After analyzing data from 19 countries, researchers noted the high occurrence of Intimate partner violence during pregnancy (Devries et al., 2010). However, statistics in those countries is under-estimated, as many of women do not report it because of fear from husbands and male-dominant societies. Conflicts and being refugees/immigrant also enhances chances of IPV (Hyder, Noor, & Tsui, 2007) .Women who witnessed conflict violence is more likely to experience IPV than women who didn’t witness conflict (Falb, McCormick, Hemenway, Anfinson, & Silverman, 2013). In India, employed women experienced IPV more than unemployed owing to male dominant society (Chakraborty, Patted, Gan, Islam, & Revankar, 2014).
Intimate partner violence is associated with myriad of health problems. The effect of IPV on mental health is well documented. My brief review focuses on depression, one of the major mental health outcomes. Study indicate that the percentage of women who report having symptoms of depression varies according to their exposure to intimate partner violence(Meekers, Pallin, & Hutchinson, 2013).Women who were abused both in childhood and adulthood were four to seven times more likely to suffer from depression than never-abused women. (Ouellet-Morin et al., 2015). In Chinese study, research categorized in to IT and SCV, and found IT associated more with depression (Tiwari et al., 2015). There have been studies to report association between physical abuse and depression, but a prospective cohort study found emotional abuse as one of the risk factors for post-natal depression. (Ludermir, Lewis, Valongueiro, de Araujo, & Araya, 2010). In this study of 1045 women, of which 270 women reported depression, psychological torture was found to be important cause. According to Yoshihama et al, the role of psychological abuse is understudied(Yoshihama, Horrocks, & Kamano, 2009). Injuries stemming from psychological abuse took more time to heal than physical abuse(Matheson et al., 2015). One Chinese study reported high-level of depression in migrants’ victims of intimate partner violence. Lagdon et al studied mental health outcomes of 58 studies and found depression as the most common outcome. (Lagdon, Armour, & Stringer, 2014). Golding et al estimated prevalance of depression at 48% among women victim of IPV.
Ludermir study make policy makers to focus on even psychological abuse. So while planning for interventions, psychological torture should be taken into account. Interventions targeted at young men have shown positive results in Ethiopia. (Pulerwitz et al., 2015). So education young men of women right values could be positive step.(continued)
Bitew, T. (2014). Prevalence and risk factors of depression in Ethiopia: a review. Ethiop J Health Sci, 24(2), 161-169.
Chakraborty, H., Patted, S., Gan, A., Islam, F., & Revankar, A. (2014). Determinants of Intimate Partner Violence Among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women in India. J Interpers Violence.
Devries, K. M., Kishor, S., Johnson, H., Stockl, H., Bacchus, L. J., Garcia-Moreno, C., & Watts, C. (2010). Intimate partner violence during pregnancy: analysis of prevalence data from 19 countries. Reprod Health Matters, 18(36), 158-170. Erulkar, A. (2013). Early marriage, marital relations and intimate partner violence in Ethiopia. Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health, 39(1), 6-13.
Falb, K. L., McCormick, M. C., Hemenway, D., Anfinson, K., & Silverman, J. G. (2013). Suicide ideation and victimization among refugee women along the Thai-Burma border. J Trauma Stress, 26(5), 631-635.
Garcia-Moreno, C., Jansen, H. A., Ellsberg, M., Heise, L., Watts, C. H., Health, W. H. O. M.-c. S. o. W. s., & Domestic Violence against Women Study, T. (2006). Prevalence of intimate partner violence: findings from the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence. Lancet, 368(9543), 1260-1269.
Hyder, A. A., Noor, Z., & Tsui, E. (2007). Intimate partner violence among Afghan women living in refugee camps in Pakistan. Soc Sci Med, 64(7), 1536-1547. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.11.029
Kabir, Z. N., Nasreen, H. E., & Edhborg, M. (2014). Intimate partner violence and its association with maternal depressive symptoms 6-8 months after childbirth in rural Bangladesh. Glob Health Action, 7, 24725.
Lagdon, S., Armour, C., & Stringer, M. (2014). Adult experience of mental health outcomes as a result of intimate partner violence victimisation: a systematic review. Eur J Psychotraumatol, 5.
Ludermir, A. B., Lewis, G., Valongueiro, S. A., de Araujo, T. V., & Araya, R. (2010). Violence against women by their intimate partner during pregnancy and postnatal depression: a prospective cohort study. Lancet, 376(9744), 903-910.
Matheson, F. I., Daoud, N., Hamilton-Wright, S., Borenstein, H., Pedersen, C., & O’Campo, P. (2015). Where Did She Go? The Transformation of Self-esteem, Self-Identity, and Mental Well-Being among Women Who Have Experienced Intimate Partner Violence. Womens Health Issues. Meekers, D., Pallin, S. C., & Hutchinson, P. (2013). Intimate partner violence and mental health in Bolivia. BMC Womens Health, 13, 28.
Ouellet-Morin, I., Fisher, H. L., York-Smith, M., Fincham-Campbell, S., Moffitt, T. E., & Arseneault, L. (2015). Intimate partner violence and new-onset depression: a longitudinal study of women’s childhood and adult histories of abuse. Depress Anxiety, 32(5), 316-324.
Pulerwitz, J., Hughes, L., Mehta, M., Kidanu, A., Verani, F., & Tewolde, S. (2015). Changing Gender Norms and Reducing Intimate Partner Violence: Results From a Quasi-Experimental Intervention Study With Young Men in Ethiopia. Am J Public Health, 105(1), 132-137.
Tiwari, A., Chan, K. L., Cheung, D. S., Fong, D. Y., Yan, E. C., & Tang, D. H. (2015). The differential effects of intimate terrorism and situational couple violence on mental health outcomes among abused Chinese women: a mixed-method study. BMC Public Health, 15, 314.
Yoshihama, M., Horrocks, J., & Kamano, S. (2009). The role of emotional abuse in intimate partner violence and health among women in Yokohama, Japan. Am J Public Health, 99(4), 647-653.